Partnership for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria;
Maternal Newborn and Child Health Initiative



> Glossary





Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEOC) clusters

this is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of one CEOC facility per 500,000 people. Underneath and referring to this CEOC facility are four Basic EOC facilities (each serving 100,000 people with the CEOC facility serving the other 100,000 people) and a number of 24/7 facilities providing maternal care. Together this is called a CEOC cluster.

Community case management (CCM)

Community case management is an approach which uses trained, supervised community members to deliver life-saving curative interventions for common, serious childhood infections such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, and newborn sepsis.

Community engagement and community mobilisation

This provides a way for individuals to participate in decisions which affect their own lives, such as the planning, development and management of health services. It involves members of a community getting involved in a participatory decision-making process, to discuss relevant issues and how to approach them.

Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC)

Around 15% of all pregnancies result in complications, the treatment of which requires timely access to emergency obstetric care. This includes administering antibiotics, manual placenta removal, assisted vaginal delivery and caesarean section.

Ghost workers

Some workplaces have staff members on the payroll who do not in fact work there. This drains financial resources and distorts staffing level figures.

Gunduma system

Gunduma is a Hausa word for district. The Gunduma system is based on the WHO district system which is a decentralised model serving around 250,000 people. In each district there is a district hospital and a number of PHC facilities. The district is normally responsible for all service issues and HR and financial issues. The model thus integrates primary and secondary health care. 

Gunduma Health Systems Board website and regulations.

Health system stewardship

This is about responsible management of the health system, to influence actions and policies affecting the health of the population in ways that promote effective service delivery, regulation, accountability and transparency.

Health systems strengthening

For effective service delivery the systems that support services need to be operating efficiently and effectively. Strengthening health systems means addressing key constraints related to health worker staffing, infrastructure, health commodities (such as equipment and medicines), logistics, tracking progress and effective financing. The WHO has identified six health systems building blocks.

Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI)

IMCI is an integrated approach to child health developed by the WHO that focuses on the well-being of the whole child. It includes both preventive and curative elements, and aims to reduce death, illness and disability and to promote improved growth and development among children under five years of age.

Kangaroo Mother Care

Kangaroo Mother Care is used particularly to care for premature and low birth weight babies, but can also be used with all newborns. It encourages skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby and exclusive breastfeeding, to keep babies warm and to facilitate emotional bonding with the mother, infection control, and breastfeeding
on demand. Read an update on implementation of KMC in PRRINN-MNCH.

Learning Local Government Area (LLGA)

In each state where PRRINN-MNCH is operational, one LGA has been identified as the LLGA. This LGA is within the first CEOC cluster. The LLGA will be the site for most of the operational research activities where new innovations in service delivery and systems strengthening will be piloted before rolling out successful models.

Minimum service package (MSP)

The MSP is a tool used to clarify what services are provided by which facilities. Services are usually divided into health posts, PHC clinics and hospitals. For each level the service package is defined and the needed drugs, staffing and equipment for the service package. This is costed. Thus, managers and policy makers have a blueprint for improving services.

Performance based financing (PBF)

Performance based financing links the giving of funds to clear measures of progress, such as taking certain actions or meeting specified targets, with the aim of ensuring that financial resources are used effectively.

Primary health care under one roof (PHCUOR)

This involves states bringing together the various aspects of PHC services (such as finances, human resources, and service delivery) which have until now been managed by different local government departments and state ministries. This integrated approach enables more effective delivery of PHC services. Read an update on PRRINN-MNCH support to states in passing laws for PHCUOR.

Routine immunization (RI)

For greatest effectiveness, vaccinations need to be given on a routine rather than an ad hoc basis. Establishing routine immunization not only protects individual children and adults, but also maximises local, national and international protection against, and control of, preventable disease.  Read an update on increased immunization coverage in PRRINN-MNCH states.

Skilled birth attendant (SBA)

A skilled birth attendant is trained in the management of pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period, including identifying and referring complications. The care of a skilled attendant at birth reduces the risk of maternal and infant mortality.

Voice & accountability (V & A)

Voice is about the ways in which citizens place pressure on health providers and policy makers to improve health services. Accountability involves ensuring that providers and policy makers are answerable for and transparent about their decisions and actions in delivering services, and are responsive to client ideas and concerns.